SHORT CHRONOLOGY OF THE UNCONVENTIONAL
1950 - 1954
August 26 US Navy Lt. Eugene Clark informed his plan to use irregular local forces for recapture of islands along Inch'on Approaches approved.
August 31 Clark arrives at Tokchok-kundo
September 1 Clark, Royal Marines and South Korean National Police retake Yonghung-do and Taemu-do from North Koreans.
September 8 Clark, Royal Marines and local irregulars retake Taemuui-do on the north side of Flying Fish (Inch'on Approach) Channel.
September 15 Miryang Guerrilla Battalion (comprised of former North Koreans) lands at Changsa-dong on South Korea's east coast. The mission is to:
- (a) Interdict supplies to North Korean troops in fighting in P'ohang Salient.
- (b) Diversion for Inch'on landing by US Tenth Corps.
September 17 Landing at Changsa-dong a failure. Guerrilla battalion withdrawn under fire by ships from Task Force 77 off Korean east coast.
September 24 Clark (Promoted to Lt. Cmdr.) returns to Korea with orders to liberate major islands south of Thirty-eighth parallel. His guerrillas augmented ROKM battalion and ROKN LST.
September 29 General MacArthur receives tentative permission to carry fight into North Korea.
September 30 ROK Army begins crossing Thirty-eighth parallel. First crossing on east coast.
October 1 Gen. MacArthur receives specific permission for advance into North Korea.
October 2 Clark's mission expanded to include `liberating' Yellow Sea islands north of Thirty-eighth parallel.
October 14 Clark's mission concluded. Guerrilla forces returned to home islands and disbanded.
October 15 Advance elements of two Chinese Communist field armies begin crossing into North Korea.
November 1 Eighth Army intelligence identifies elements of CCF division fighting alongside North Koreans.
November 6 Eighth Army intelligence confirms presence of eleven additional CCF divisions.
November 25 CCF attacks in force. UN units begin retreating on all fronts.
November 27 Kim Ung Su, ROKA intelligence and former school master at Sinanju, forms partisan unit with former students. Eighth Army supplies weapons. Unit moves to Ae-do, an island off Sinanju. Begins limited attacks against NK & CCF supply lines.
December UN Forces continue withdrawal from North Korea. Meanwhile exodus of North Koreans friendly with UN begins. Small self-defense units formed to protect refugees fleeing south. Small units begin consolidating into larger units. Several battles between communist units and newly formed partisan units take place as withdrawal continues.
January 8 US Eighth Army informed that semi-organized partisan groups are still active in North Korea's Hwanghae Province but are being forced to withdraw to offshore islands.
January 14 ROK Navy vessels withdraw refugees from Upcho-ri on Hwanghae Province's southwest coast while partisan fight a delaying action to cover the withdrawal. Meanwhile North Korean troops are closing in on a second partisan group defending refugees in Hwanghae's northwestern quadrant.
January 15 Attrition (Partisan) Section organized under Miscellaneous Division, Eighth Army G3, to direct partisan effort. Meanwhile the P'yongyang Partisan Regiment, the partisan group in northwestern Hwanghae Province, ambushes its North Korean pursuers.
January 16 The P'yongyang Partisan Regiment go on the offensive and retake Changyon but withdraw.
January 17 The P'yongyang Partisan Regiment stop a North Korean attack north of Changyon, then withdraw toward the coast.
January 19 The P'yongyang Partisan Regiment withdraws from the mainland to the offshore island of Ch'o-do.
February 15 TASK FORCE WILLIAM ABLE (later LEOPARD BASE) begins operation on the west coast island of Paengnyong-do with a mission to direct partisan operations in North Korea's western provinces. BAKER Section is official established at Kijang near Pusan to airborne-train partisans for behind-the-lines operations in North Korea. Recruiting for the first behind-the-lines operation begins at the US 4th Ranger Infantry Company (Airborne.)
March 1 Task Force William able instructed to initiate partisan operations as soon as possible to support Eighth Army's Operation Killer.
March 4 William Able's Donkey 4 launches Operation "Shining Moon."
March 5 Four US Rangers arrive at Baker Section's K3 detachment for participation in "Operation Virginia One."
March 15 Virginia One launched.
March 25 British naval units (CTE 95.1) agree to support partisan operations with air strikes and naval gunfire.
March 30 Virginia One reestablishes contact via 7th Div FAC aircraft. Perry flies to location and establishes direct contact.
March 31 Three Virginia One Rangers exfiltrated by Naval helicopter from a hot LZ. All others killed or captured.
April 25 G-3 Miscellaneous assumes control of east coast irregular elements formerly under ROK control. Task Force Kirkland is formed at P'ohang-dong and prepares for a move to Samch'ok for training.
April 30 Kirkland moves to Samch'ok.
May 5 G-3 Miscellaneous Division becomes an authorized TD unit, G-3 Miscellaneous Group, 8086th Army Unit. Takes control of partisan operation on Han River Estuary islands from US First Corps.
May 15 Task Force Kirkland Rear is established as support headquarters at Chumunjin, a small port city seven miles south of 38th Parallel. Advance elements of Task Force Kirkland Forward depart for Nam-do, an island on the 39th Parallel ten miles off North Korea's coast.
May 19 Kirkland Forward main body arrives on Nam-do.
May 23 Major Burke, Leopard CO, sends Captain Robert Channon to Han River islands to settle internecine war between ROK Army led irregulars and partisans from mainland Hwanghae Province.
May 24 Kirkland establishes coastwatchers on Song-do, an island a short distance off the North Korean coast.
May 25 Channon arrives on Kanghwa-do.
June 3 Kirkland launches its first raid against North Korean mainland. This is to "bloody" Kirkland partisans, gather intelligence material and make the enemy use troops needed at the front to guard its coast.
June 4 Kirkland withdraws from Kojo after successful operation.
June 5 Channon leaves Han River Islands after settling dispute.
June 18 Advance party for Operation Spitfire parachutes into North Korea.
June 21 Task Force Perry arrives at Kyodong-do to establish command and control of Donkeys along Hwanghae Province's southern coast, including Han River Estuary Islands. This is a semi-independent sub-command of Leopard.
June 26 Spitfire augmentation team dropped.
July 5 Aircraft making resupply drop to Spitfire can not find DZ. Loiters until dawn and then makes drop directly over hideout. Spitfire runs for its life.
July 6 Spitfire Advance scouts run into enemy ambush at dawn. Sgt. Miles and 3rd Lt. (cadet) Ho fight delaying action to allow others to escape. (Both MIA)
July 12 Task Force Perry moves its headquarters from Kyodong-do to Kanghwa-do for better control of Han River island partisans.
July 17 Donkey Eight partisans launch raid on mainland. Boats stranded by outgoing tide. Naval gunfire and air support saves partisans but casualties heavy.
July 26 Spitfire survivors exfiltrate through 35th Infantry Regiment front lines.
August 1 Aviary Section, Combined Command Reconnaissance Activities, Korea, 8240th AU, established at K-16 (Seoul City Airport.)
August 7 Kirkland loses Song-do (AKA Sol-sam) to enemy action.
August 8 Kirkland reestablishes coastwatchers on Song-do after enemy departs.
August 9 LTC Samuel Koster takes command of Miscellaneous Group.
August 14 North Koreans attempt to take Sunui-do by wading across mud flats during low tide. Attempt fails. Enemy casualties heavy.
September 1 Plans for Mustang II (POW rescue mission including General Dean) approved by Far East Command Headquarters. This is an updated version of Mustang I that was shelved in July.
September 2 Selected members of Baker Section informed of upcoming mission.
September 6 Yuk-do and Yongui-do attacked by North Korean troops. Yuk-do successful defended but Yongui-do falls. Captain David Maus KIA on Yongui-do.
September 11 Volunteers recover body of Maus.
September 17 B-26 carrying Baker Section officers on recon of Mustang II mission site (Ha-ri, NK) shot down. Accompanying B-26 reports two parachutes opening at very low level.
September 21 Mustang II canceled due to possible compromise.
October 8 Donkey 15 captures sister islands of Tan-do and T'an-do near mouth of Yalu River. Requests permission to capture Sunmi-do with UN naval support.
October 10 Permission for Sunmi-do invasion approved. Planning begins.
October 14 Donkey 15, supported by HMS Cossack, lands on Sunmi-do but island has been recently reinforced. Landing fails with heavy Donkey 15 casualties.
November 6 Chinese launch attack against Donkey 13 on Tan-do. Tan-do falls. Survivors retreat to T'an-do.
November 8 Chinese invade and take T'an-do.
November 11 CCRAK deploys its first Tactical Liaison Office team to US infantry division. Mission - dispatching and retrieving agents through front line positions. Later TLOs will conduct long range patrols behind enemy lines.
November 15 Chinese take Ae-do.
November 24 Chinese take Sohwa-do
November 30 Chinese land on Taehwa-do. Vicious fighting between Donkey 15, supported with naval gunfire from HMS Cossack, fails to stop landing.
December 1 Taehwa-do, last partisan base along northwestern North Korean coast, falls. Three British (one SAS, two man naval gunfire team) and one US captured. One US officer flees in get-away boat leaving others.
December 10 Eighth Army G3 Miscellaneous Group absorbed by Far East Command Liaison Detachment, Korea, 8240th Army Unit. New Designation, United Nations Partisan Forces, Korea, 8240th Army Unit. Combined Command Reconnaissance Activities, Korea, 8240th AU, assumes responsibility for all behind-the-lines activities (intelligence and special operations) in Korea. Both UNPFK and CCRAK under FEC/LD(K), 8240th AU, forward HQ for Far East Command Liaison Group, 8240th AU, Tokyo.
January 1 Wolfpack is formed out of the eastern part of Leopard's area of operations. This is the area formerly under Leopard's, Donkeys Five and Eight. Wolfpack's west boundary is the XB-YB north-south grid line. This grid line splits Sunui-do in two with Donkey Eight on the western half of the island and Wolfpack Eight on the eastern half. Wolfpack's area of operations extends along Hwanghae Province's southern coast from the Han River on the east to Sunui-do.
January 22 Baker Section launches Mustang III, a nineteen member all-Korean partisan operation. Mustang III is intended to contact an existing Donkey 15 partisan group operating in far northwest North Korea. Once in contact with the Donkey 15 unit it will provide this unit radio contact with Leopard and train the partisans in Sabotage. The second phase includes contacting prisoners in non-Korean POW camps and establishing E&E routes from these camps. Jump successful but radio contact fails a few days after insertion.
January 30 Big Boy informs Kirkland Forward on Nam-do that it has rescued a shot-down US Navy pilot and requests helicopter evacuation.
February 5 Attempt made but Navy helicopter hit by groundfire and returns to its ship where it crashes on landing. Kirkland CO slightly injured in crash.
February 7 Second attempt. Helicopter reaches EZ but runs into ambush on landing. Crashes on takeoff. Chopper Pilot, downed pilot and Kirkland XO captured.
February 19 CCRAK-Aviary mission downed 12 kilometers west of Wonsan when an agent flips a primed grenade back into C-46 as he jumps. Plane crashes but most crew able to jump. Pilot and one CCRAK EM KIA. One AF noncom DOW shortly after jump. One Aviary noncom captured and one noncom MIA. Information indicates possibility this MIA noncom taken to Russia.
March 1 Kirkland again marginally operational. Chief role infiltration of teams to establish inland partisan groups. Secondary role spotting targets for naval gunfire and small coast road interdiction raids. Leopard and Wolfpack increasing activity with improving weather.
March 16 Mustang IV launched with same mission as Mustang III but in different area. Mission operational.
April 18 Severe storm lashes western Korean coast. High winds and heavy seas sink or destroy several Leopard boats.
April 22 Vanderpool issues Partisan Operations Outline.
May 1 Two US officers and 40 Donkey 15 partisans begin junk-borne reconnaissance of northwestern islands. Simultaneously US-led full scale raiding resumes along coastline in Leopard and Wolfpack areas of operation.
May 4 Evading US AF colonel found on Taehwa-do. Has been there for several weeks after being shot down during fight with MIG-15s.
May 6 AF pilot arrives Ch'o-do.
May 14 Mustang V and VI launched but in different locations. Mission sabotage and establishing E&E routes from POW camps. No contact established with either party after drop.
May 21 Donkey 15 returns in force to Taehwa-do and Sohwa-do. Improved communications allow direct contact with both Navy and Air Force.
June 1 Wolfpack 8 noncom leads inland recon. Finds several previously unknown enemy concentrations. Calls in and directs airstrikes with good results. Make successful withdrawal night of June 4.
June 9 Kirkland mounts raid on railroad tunnels north of Kojo. (Same tunnels attacked by ROK Marines prior to Virginia One.)
June 15 Wolfpack 8 noncom leads second inland recon. Excellent results.
June 19 Leopard launches American-led reconnaissance-in-force in area across channel from Ch'o-do. Finds few enemy in this area.
June 25 Kirkland lands Daniel Boone on east coast. Unit infiltrates to interior and establishes a partisan base in Diamond Mountain area south of Wonsan.
July 1 Wolfpack, Leopard and Kirkland mount numerous small raids along both coasts.
July 15 Tropical storm hits west coast. Several Leopard and Wolfpack boats swamped. Operations halted for cleanup.
August 3 Second typhoon hits west coast. More boats damaged. Lack of transportation plus cleanup slows Leopard and Wolfpack operations.
August 11 Kirkland makes raid against AA positions south of Wonsan.
August 22 Leopard's Donkey 2 makes raid near Chinamp'o.
August 30 Leopard and Wolfpack operations suspended due to third approaching typhoon.
September 2 Typhoon hits Wolfpack islands. Severe damage.
September 3 Wolfpack reports losing 3 motorized and 10 sail junks to typhoon.
September 27 Orders received to expand UNPFK to 20,000 partisans by 15 March 1953. Task Force Scannon formed on east coast. Kirkland becomes Kirkland Regiment.
September 28 Wolfpacks makes reconnaissance-in-force landing. Party consists of four Americans and 475 partisans. Some objectives obtained but sheer size precludes quick movement.
September 30 Reconnaissance party withdraws under fire. Heavy casualties.
October 5 CCRAK redesignated 8242nd AU and assumes operational control of Far East Command Liaison Detachment, Korea. This includes the partisans.
October 24 Mustang VII and VIII dropped in vicinity of POW camps in far northern North Korea. Initial success but again radio contact lost after a few days.
November 11 Partisan forces redesignated as United Nations Partisan Infantry, Korea, 8240th AU. Leopard, Wolfpack and Task Force Scannon redesignated Partisan Infantry Regiments. Baker Section redesignated as1st Partisan Airborne Infantry Regiment (1st PAIR).
November 13 Leopard partisans use silenced weapons (British Sten Guns) on raid for first time.
November 24 Wolfpack partisans use flamethrowers on raid for first time.
November 31 November best month ever for partisan operations. 408 separate actions conducted. 6785 enemy casualties.
December 10 3rd PIR (formerly AKA Task Force Scannon assigned larger operational area. Three battalions, Storm, Avonlee and Torchlight join the Kirkland Regiment (battalion) as part of the 3rd PIR.
December 15 3rd PIR reports numerous desertions and other morale problems after a buildup from 275 men in August to a strength of 1,589 as of December fifteenth. (Most new UNPIK men from South Korea and have enlisted in UNPIK to escape Korean Army service.)
January 1 AFFE (Far East Command's redesignation) orders increase in partisan strength to 40,000 men by 15 July 1953.
January 22 Word received that Special Forces, Ft. Bragg, NC, will be sending 60 officers and 15 EM during March, April and May.
January 25 Green Dragon dropped into same DZ used by Spitfire. Operation insertion and startup very successful.
February 7 Boxer I and II dropped on east coast NE of Hungnam. Results unk since operation conducted by CIA.
February 9 Boxer III dropped. Same as Boxer I & II.
February 11 Boxer IV dropped. (ditto)
February 21 Internecine war with ROK authorities developing. All commands ordered to avoid friction with ROK military and civilian authorities. Friction due to expansion plans and ROK fears of partisan force turning on ROK government.
March 31 Hurricane (radio team for inland Donkey) dropped. First Special Forces troops arrive.
April 1 5th PIR created from western area of 2nd PIR (Wolfpack) and becomes operational. Rabbit I (sleeper mission) dropped.
April 5 New commanders assigned to CCRAK, Liaison Detachment and UNPIK as chairwarmers move in to qualify for CIB and other combat awards.
April 6 6th PIR created from north area of 1st PIR (Leopard) becomes operational. Rabbit II dropped.
April 16 Orders issued to cease recruiting and to cut partisan strength to 20,000 men by 15 July 1953.
April 20 Two Americans and 20 partisans (Seadragon) make a junk survey of Yalu River Estuary islands.
April 22 24 Man augmentation dropped for Green Dragon.
May 17 2nd PIR (Wolfpack East) lands 410-man partisan force. Three Americans lead.
May 19 30 man augmentation dropped for Green Dragon.
May 22 Partisan strength now at 22,000 men.
June 12 All partisans and Americans withdrawn from islands north of 38th Parallel with exception of "stay-behinds" and small reconnaissance patrols to keep tabs on enemy movements. Operations continue from islands south of the 38th and north of Sokcho-ri.
JULY - DECEMBER 1953
July 27 Ceasefire. All operations but stay-behind missions cease.
September 1 Disbanding commences.
February 22 Stay-behind missions "Camel" and "Beehive" survivors exfiltrated from southern Hwanghae Province coast. This is last active operation conducted by the 8240th AU.
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